Family History



Nicholas KEYS was most likely baptised on 8 Dec 1793 in Adstock1. He was buried on 1 Nov 1815 in St. Peter & St. Paul Buckingham, Bucksinghamshire, his age given as 21 in the Parish Register1.

His burial age gives a birth date of circa 1793/4. The main concentration of Keys in the Buckingham town area is in nearby Adstock, where a Nicholas Keys was baptised on 8 Dec 1793 to Francis & Martha. This is the only likely baptism given the locality of the surname, his age, and the rare number of Nicholas Keys in the records. Buckinghamshire is well represented on the IGI, BVR etc., with few parishes not indexed. There are only 4 Nicholas baptisms, all in Adstock. The only one near the age of Nicholas is as above. He is the only one of two Nicholas Keys (and its variations) to appear in the Buckinghamshire FHS marriage index (completed). The other before our Nicholas's baptism. It therefore tends to confirms the Aylesbury marriage as this Nicholas' marriage.

His occupation has been recorded as :-
Labourer (sons' Baptismal 1815)  

Recorded addresses :-
Adstock, BKM (baptism 1793) 
Buckingham, BKM (son's Baptism 1815 & own burial the same year) 

He was married to Ruth HINTON on 12 Oct 1814 in Aylesbury, Bucks1. In the Marriage Register he is named as Kays and signs with his mark. 

Ruth HINTON was baptised on 24 November 1793 in Quainton, Bucks1. She died on 2 Mar 1870 in the Union Workhouse, Buckingham3.

Recorded addresses :-
Buckingham, BKM (son's Baptism 1815, 2nd marriage 1817)
Well St, Bourtonhold Hamlet, Parish of Buckingham (1841 census)
Soulbury Road, Linslade, Bucks (1851 census)
28 Gast Street, Northampton (1861 Census)
Union Workhouse, Buckingham (Dear 1870)

Occupation :-
Nurse (1851 census)
Lace Maker (1861 Census)

Ruth was married three times. After her 1st husband Nicholas Keys died Ruth married :-
2nd - Thomas Castle on 26th Sep1817 in St. Peter & St. Paul Buckingham.
3rd - Benjamin TYRRELL (TYRELL / TIRRELL) on 4 Apr 1828 in St. Peter & St. Paul, Buckingham. Benjamin indexed as TURVELL in the Bucks FHS Marriage Index (Parish register entry yet to be obtained, however census returns confirm surname as TYRELL. They were living together in the 1841 census but appear to have separated by the 1851 census, as they were living apart in different towns with Benjamin incorrectly recorded as, or claiming to be, "unmarried". I have been unable to fiind Benjamin in the 1851 census on However he is recorded in the Bucks FHS 1851 census index :-
TYRELL, Benamin, Head, Unmarried, 57, Chelsea pensioner, born Maids Moreton.
There is little doubt that this is Ruth's husband. In the 1841 census when he was with Ruth he is recorded as an Army Pensioner (who are commonly known as Chelsea Pensioners). Benjamin's Army records are available from The National Archives, ref  WO 97/359/18 (which I have yet to obtain). He is recorded in the catalogue as follows :-
TERRELL, Benjamin, born Maids Moreton, Buckinghamshire, Served in 14th Foot Regiment, Discharged aged 34.

Ruth's age and place of birth in the 1851 census are confirmed as born Quainton, aged 57 years, i.e. ca. 1793, matching that of a baptism of Ruth Hinton in Quainton on 24 Nov 1793 to Thomas and Betty. In the 1861 census her place of birth on the website is recorded as Menton. However when the original 1861 census return is compared with her 1851 census return, it can be seen from the handwritten record that "Menton" is in fact "Quainton" (there is no place called Menton in Northamptonshire). The 1861 confusion as a result of her entry being smaller and cramped, it was written below the last line on the page, as well as the "Q" being written in the old style where the front of the letter is open  :- Q. Once it is realised that Quainton is the place of birth, it is quite obvious that the 1861 entry is Ruth, the entry being :- Ruth TURRALL, Boarder, 67, Lace Maker, Quainton, Bucks.
She was in the household of an Elizabeth HALL, born in Chelsea, and her two unmarried children, hence no obvious family connection. Exactly how and why Ruth ended up in Northampton as a Lace Maker is unknown. Perhaps Elizabeth Hall was married to a relation of Ruth's.

Ruth's children were:

child i. Thomas KEYS was christened on 25 Oct 1815 in Buckingham, Bucks1. He died in 1890 in Leighton Buzzard, Beds.
child ii.  Ann TYRELL, born about 1826 in Buckinghamshire.2a
child iii.  Henry TYRELL, born about 1829 in Buckinghamshire.2a
child iv.  Arabell TYRELL, born about 1831 in Buckinghamshire.2a
child v.  Amelia TYRELL, born about 1833 in Buckinghamshire.2a

Sources :-
1. Parish Register - locations as stated in text above.
2. Census returns :-
     a. 1841 - HO107/62/15/f.5/p.5 (As TIRRELL) Name incorrectly transcribed by as "Terrett".
     b. 1851 - HO107/1756/f.239/p.23 (As TYRILL).
     c. 1861 - RG9/940/ (As Ruth TURRALL). Place of birth incorrectly transcribed by as "Menton" instead of "Quainton".
3. Death certificate - 1870, Mar Q, Buckingham, 3a 428.


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